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What do the solinoids do on the dual carbs?
I believe there are around 10 solenoids in the carburetor system. Some of them have an obvious purpose, for example the a/c idle boost solenoid valve raises the idle when you turn the a/c on. But, a "Cranking Leak Solenoid Valve" is not something I've come across before so I can't tell you what it does.

Below is a link to the on-line shop manual, probably the best thing to say is read a little.
http://media.honda.co.uk/car/owner/media/manuals/PreludeManual/index.html

To get you started, this shows the electrical circuit controlling the solenoids and gives an idea of what each one does.
http://media.honda.co.uk/car/owner/media/manuals/PreludeManual/62sf100/6-16.pdf

Diagrammes showing Vacuum Connections to solenoids.
http://media.honda.co.uk/car/owner/media/manuals/PreludeManual/62sf100/6-7.pdf

Can they be bypassed somehow?
I've never owned a carb'd Lude so can't help you here beyond obvious stuff; i.e. if you have removed a/c then you will no longer need that solenoid.

You could find out how critical each item is to the system by experiment. Figure out what each solenoid does, if you think the car will run okay without it then disconnect it. If the car runs okay then you were right, if it doesn't then you need that connection.
 

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Those are probably the most complex carb setup ever made. I'm not really joking either. I have owned a couple different carbie ludes over the years. One of them gave me absolutely no problems. The other one had an issue with the choke pull-off diaphram. Ran well after I replaced that. But I had to do the work myself because not even the local Honda dealer was willing to look at that system other than to diagnose the issue. I have read about others having success in taking it to a bike shop for carb work, since they are essentially bike carbs.

In my opinion, if the thing is running well leave the carbs alone if it's even close to being a daily driver. If you want to learn about the system and maybe do some custom work, and it's not your primary transportation, then by all means play with it. I always wanted to convert one of mine to itb's but I really didn't have the time or the means to do that at that time. If I had a carbie lude now I'd make the attempt to the conversion. But that's only because I have other vehicles to drive now.
 

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I guess the main question is why would you want to bypass them?
 
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